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A Lexicon Of Sign Language Interpreting

A glossary is an alphabetical listing of technical terms in a specialized field of knowledge.  Glossaries are brief, to the point, and function best as guides or quick reminders.  This Glossary includes vocabulary, terminology, jargon, lingo, phrases, acronyms, and word uses of particular interest to ASL and sign language interpreting students and practitioners.  Here is represented a lexicon of sign language interpreting.

 


Fun gift for your favorite terp (maybe that's you!).

Believe it or not, you can actually buy a metal street sign that says Terp Drive.
(We could not get over this.)  Click the sign for more information.


 

Quick Click Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TERM: BRIEFLY STATED: MORE ABOUT IT: Notes:
A-language,
 
B-language,
 
C-language ...
working language classification; language fluency relative to interpreter's skill, knowledge, and ability.

(Not L1;  L2;  L3.)
A-language refers to a person's best language (usually native); 
B
-language denotes near-native fluency; and 
C
-language means you can understand it, but you cannot produce it with fluency.
 
accent Features of previously learned language appear in subsequently learned language.

(Not dialect.)
Learners of a second (L2) or third (L3) language often continue using some sounds (phonological features) of their native (L1) language. Example: The English V sound is not found in Spanish; therefore, a native Spanish user might substitute a B sound when learning to speak English as a second language.
ADA Americans With
Disabilities
Act
   
articulation act or manner of expression or utterance  This refers to how exactly a spoken word or signed concept is done. People might say, "Wow, that gal's really an articulate presenter" if they think she did a very good job of expressing herself and of conveying her message.
ASL American
Sign
Language
ASL a full, rich, and complete language.  ASL is ASL; it is not, for example, BSL (British Sign Language), ISL (Israeli Sign Language), or AusLan (Australian Sign Language), and it is not "English on the hands." William C. Stokoe, Jr., PhD, is often referred to as "the father of ASL linguistics" because of his ground-breaking work and 1965 publication of the Dictionary of American Sign Language on Linguistic Principles.
ASL
 grammar
includes syntax, referential space and time, mouth morphemes, sign articulation   American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete language.  Many people mistakenly believe that ASL is English on the hands; it is not.
ASLTA American
Sign
Language
Teachers
Association
Objectives include:
To provide a closer relationship between teachers of ASL and Deaf Studies, and other organizations having complimentary interests.
On the Web:
ASLTA.org
audism

audist
prejudice in favor of people who hear well From audio or auditory: Audism refers to prejudice in favor of people who possess the sense of hearing. Prejudice can come from within a community, as well as from outside it.
baby terp person just beginning interpreter education Interpreters who do not have any or much experience; on the early part of their journey to becoming a terp. "Baby terp" does not mean an interpreter for babies.
backchannel message-recipient behaviors, such as "uh-huh," head-nod, quizzical look, frown a kind of feedback  
bicultural
  mediation
Elsewhere on this page see: mediate.    
Big-D Deaf Refers to the word Deaf with a capital letter D, rather than a lower-case letter d.  Also see listing for "Deaf," on this page. Deaf-culture-identified.
bilateral
  interpreting
working in both directions Required during situations involving frequent turn-taking (discussions, meetings, chats). Most often during discussions, meetings, chats.  Infrequently in a conference setting, depending upon formality of the situation.
bimodal simultaneously two ways Bimodal communication is the simultaneous use of two "ways" of communicating; producing a sign while speaking it in English, for example.  
C-PrintTM transcription display software system Originally developed at NTID, this speech-to-print system is operated by a captionist.  The source language message is received by captionist, who then transcribes it using C-Print®. The transcribed source message appears simultaneously on a computer screen (typically on a student's desk or table) and a display screen (typically in the front of a classroom).  C-Print® is most often used in a college setting.
captioning

 
open -
 close -
open-captioning is part of (embedded in) the original film or transmission, can't turn it off; 
close-captioning is added by additional process, can turn it off or on
  Many videos are close-captioned, which is why you can turn it off or on. Likewise, while watching a TV show, If you can turn captioning on or off, then it's close-captioning.
CASE Conceptually
Accurate
Signed
English
As closely as possible follows English grammatical structure while using conceptually accurate signs and linguistic conventions from ASL.  
CDI RID-
Certified
Deaf
Interpreter
An interpreter who is deaf and whose certification was conferred by RID.  Click to go to page top.
certified
  member
  of RID
a) certification has been conferred by RID; or
b) RID has accepted as a certified member an interpreter whose NAD or EIPA result demonstrates a high level of competence that is at or exceeds the minimum established by RID; and
c) interpreter is a RID member is good standing
   
certified
 
interpreter
a) certification has been conferred by RID; and,

b) interpreter is a RID member in good standing
A state-level interpreter license or credential is not certification.  Certification is a national-level credential conferred by RID.  Certification hallmarks the highest levels of interpreting skill and professionalism. Respectful caution is warranted when using the term "certified interpreter." Terps who have not received certification from RID might be referred to as, for example, credentialed; qualified; employed; or experienced; but not as certified.
Also see: certified member of RID
chunking to break lengthy dialogue into manageable concept-related pieces   US telephone numbers typically have 10 digits so are chunked into groups of 3-3-4 rather than one long 10-digit number.  For example, 800-555-1212 rather than 8005551212.  
CIT Conference of
Interpreter
Trainers
Professional organization dedicated to laying the educational foundations for interpreters to build bridges of understanding. On the Web:
CIT-ASL.org
classifier used in context to represent something belonging to a semantic class (ex: vehicle; person; animal) The use of classifiers is an essential linguistic element of ASL. For example: In ASL, the 1 handshape may be used to represent a person who has already been identified, or the 3 handshape may be used to represent a vehicle that has already been identified.
clozure
(closure)
successfully filling in the blanks of missed text, spelling, or utterance. From closure: meaning to complete or conclude.   Terps might use cultural/linguistic context knowledge to interpret implied, missing, or vague bits of information.  Explore your cloze skill aptitude at the bottom of this page.
cochlea inner ear coil-shaped cavity having nerve endings essential to hearing   Plural:
cochleae; or
cochleas.
cochlear
 implant


 
CI
surgically inserted array of electrodes transmit signals to inner ear auditory nerve from outside processor   Cochlear implantation is a complex issue and sometimes the cause of heated debate among hearing and D/deaf individuals, families, and groups.
CoDA Child(ren)
of
Deaf
Adult(s)
Raised by d/Deaf parent or parents.  Generally, a CoDA's first language is sign language.  Spoken language is often learned as a second language, or is simultaneously acquired.
code systematic representation of a language (e.g.: Morse code) A code is not a language; it is the representation of a language by using signals or other symbols, letters, words, etc.  
code-
  switching
using more than one language during discourse During conversation, people who know more than one language can mix or switch elements of different languages within a single exchange; even within a single sentence. If you're chatting with someone and suddenly notice that s/he seems to have "changed the rules" of language or expression (ex: grammar or syntax has changed), it's likely that he or she has code-switched or code-mixed. 
Code of Professional Conduct

CPC
NAD-RID code of professional ethics and behavior for interpreters Certified and Associate members of RID or a RID affiliate, and interpreter interns and students, are bound by the NAD-RID CPC. Consumers of interpreter services do well to make sure an interpreter is sworn to the CPC before using his or her services.

On the Web:
RID.org

compare-
  contrast

<coming soon>
    Elsewhere on this site, see ExpansionCompression.
compression  - interpretation strategy 

 
- form of discourse mediation

 - renders message in target language that is  equivalent to source language meaning as well as culturally and linguistically appropriate

In order to render a message that is linguistically and culturally appropriate, the interpreter will consciously and strategically "repackage" or omit information that is redundant or not relevant in the context of the target language culture, while retaining the intended meaning.  
consecutive
 
interpreting
interpretation occurs after or is sandwiched between spurts of discourse or message broadcast Person #1 makes a remark or asks a question, and stops.  Then, the terp interprets that, and stops.  Person #2 responds, and stops.  Then, the terp interprets the response, and stops.  And, so on. In your mind, picture a tennis ball being volleyed back and forth, back and forth.  This is how consecutive terping goes.
consumer user of interpreting services Includes deaf and hearing participants, as well as the hiring entity.  
contact
 language
a blend of different languages, mixing features of each language A frequent linguistic result of contact by people who do not know one another's language.  
contrast-
 
compare

<coming soon>
    Elsewhere on this site, see ExpansionCompression.
credentials includes: RID certification; NAD or EIPA qualifications; various state level qualifications; licenses; and so on    
cued
  speech
manual coding/representation of language phonemes CS uses 8 handshapes, each in 4 possible positions, and was originally intended to improve literacy success. Cued speech and
visual phonics are different phonemic coding systems.
deaf having a hearing deficit; partially or completely without the sense of hearing Some people say deaf describes a medical fact; some say it describes a linguistic minority group. It is not unusual that hard of hearing persons are referred to as either deaf or hard of hearing.
Deaf upper-case D: a cultural, community, or linguistic affiliation or identity "Big-D" is another way to say "deaf with a capital D."  
Deaf
 Culture
language, art, icons, history, customs, and conventions, and affinities of the Deaf community     
deaf-blind deaf and blind   Terps provide tactile interpreting services for consumers who are deaf-blind. 
deaf plus person who is deaf and has, for example, blindness, autism, or cerebral palsy,    According to Gallaudet research (2005), about 40% of children identified with hearing loss have other issues.
demand control

  DC-S
schema proposed by Dean and Pollard describes relationship between workplace demands and controls available to the interpreter   Elsewhere see:
DemandControl
depends interpreters' inside joke; also:

 - it depends; 
 - that depends; and
 - it all depends.

Appropriate dynamically equivalent interpretations often vary among interpreters, the explanations for which often include the phrase, "Well, you see, that all depends ... " Students often come to hate the word.  <grin> When discussing interpretation choices, interpreters can be found grinning to one another while signing, DEPENDS without further comment because they know that context, client, and communication goal (among other factors) can influence the interpretation product.
describe
   then do
<coming soon>
    Elsewhere on this site, see ExpansionCompression.
DHH deaf or
hard of 
hearing
   
dialect a different way of articulation within a language; not a different language

(Not accent.)
  Might be geographic/regional (ex: northeastern of southern American English); might be cultural/societal (ex: Black Vernacular English - BVE).
dialogue
  interpreting
Elsewhere on this page, see
bilateral interpreting
   
DoD deaf
of
deaf
A deaf person having at least one deaf parent.  Click to go to page top.
DoH deaf
of
hearing
A deaf person having at least one hearing parent.  
dynamic
 equivalent
not word-for-word; conceptually and culturally equal Not a "literal translation."  An interpreted message that reflects the target language and culture.  A biculturally mediated interpretation.  
EIPA Educational
Interpreter
Performance
Assessment
Interpreters with an EIPA rating of 4.0 or higher are accepted by RID as certified members with the "Ed: K-12" designation. On the Web: ClassroomInterpreting.com
EPS RID
Ethical
Practices
System
RID has created a system that focuses on conflict resolution. If adjudication is necessary, the case is reviewed by certified members of RID well versed on the CPC and interpreting ethics. "It is important for the profession of interpreting to hold interpreters responsible for their ethical behavior. Having a system to process grievances strengthens the field of interpreting and brings about accountability, responsibility and trust to the individuals that the profession serves as well as the professionals themselves."

EPS Manual on the Web:
RID.org

equal
  access
available equally to hearing and deaf persons    
expansion  - interpretation strategy 

 
- form of discourse mediation

 - renders message in target language that is  equivalent to source language meaning as well as culturally and linguistically appropriate

In order to render a message that is linguistically and culturally appropriate, the interpreter will consciously and strategically "repackage" or enhance discourse features of a low-context source message to make it linguistically and culturally relevant or meaningful in the target language, while retaining the intended meaning.  
faceting
<coming soon>
    Elsewhere on this site, see ExpansionCompression.
FAPE [setting: educational]

Free and
Appropriate
Public
Education

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 protects the rights of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities that receive federal funds. On the Web:
ED.gov
ListenUp.org
Gallaudet Gallaudet University Located in Washington, DC. The world's only university designed to accommodate deaf and hard of hearing students. Established 1864 by Act of Congress.  Gallaudet's charter was signed by President Abraham Lincoln.  Known affectionately as Gally. On the Web:
Gallaudet.edu
Gestuno International Sign Language Developed by the World Federation of the Deaf and used primarily among Federation members. Just as no one is a native user of only Esperanto (International Spoken Language), no one is a native user of only Gestuno. 
gesture irregular, imprecise, spontaneous movement; accompanies communication    
gloss quick or basic translation probably lacking completeness    
handshape the way the hand and fingers are configured for sign formation (one of four characteristics of a sign) Sign characteristics include:

 handshape;
 location;
 orientation; and
 movement.
There are about 18 handshapes, 12 locations, and 23 different movements in ASL (this may vary with dialect).
hard of
  hearing
 

  HH,
  HoH,
  HOH
partially without the sense of hearing    
hear complex process of sensing sound; involves parts of the ear, the brain stem, and hearing and cognition centers of the brain    
hearing in possession of the sense of hearing   Generally, one who hears is appropriately referred to as "hearing;" one who is deaf or hard of hearing can appropriately referred to as "deaf."
high-
  context
generous detail and related information Circumstances and details surrounding an event, result, or situation.  May include history, setting, relationships, presuppositions, any number of supporting or expository data. Native users of American Sign Language generally practice high-context communication, while native users of spoken English generally practice low-context communication.
HLAA Hearing
Loss
Association of
America, Inc.
HLAA (formerly SHHH "Self Help for Hard of Hearing People, Inc.") is a non-profit organization offering support "for consumers by consumers." On the Web:
HearingLoss.org
home
  signs
non-standard signs or gestures, idiosyncratic, developed by and used among one's family members within typically the same household; home signs vary from family to family    Click to go to page top.
HVO

  H
igh
  Visual
  Orientation
language deficient or performs poorly on language or literacy skill assessments For example, a person who is HVO gets more information by observing an event than by reading about it. The previously used "Minimal Language Skill" or "Minimal Language Competency" seem to have fallen from favor.
idiom a "saying;" an expression that typically cannot be understood literally, word by word. Idiomatic phrases are loaded with meaning and are not understood literally.  If translated word by word into another language, their meaning is usually lost. Idioms have meaning within a culture, so are not universally understood. Examples of American English idioms: "He was left hung out to dry;" "She's tops in my book." 
IEP [setting = educational]

Individualized
Education
Program

  On the Web:
WI.gov
Listen-Up.org
interpret translate orally/manually   The difference between interpretation and translation is the medium: a sign language interpreter works between either written text and oral or manual discourse, or oral and manual discourse; a translator works between only written texts.
L1,
  L2,
  L3
one's
first language, 
second language, 
third language …
L1 refers to a person's "first" (native) language (typically the language used in the childhood home).  If you are learning a second language, you are an L2 learner.  
lag time time required to produce an interpretation This is the time between when the interpreter receives the source utterance until the interpreter produces the message in the target language. During lag time, a terp is making linguistic and cultural choices about how to produce the most complete and accurate message ... all while actually producing a previous part of the message and receiving the next one.
lexical
 
borrowing
Elsewhere on this page, see
loan sign.
   
lexicon vocabulary of a person, group, subject, or language; or, collection of all morphemes of a language   Someone might remark, "The word quite simply is not in my lexicon," meaning s/he does not allow for the sentiment; it is not in his or her vocabulary.
liaison
  interpreting
Elsewhere on this page, see
bilateral interpreting
   
loan sign originally from another language but adapted and accepted for standard signing use   The ASL sign for "No" was originally a loan sign, lexically adapted from the fingerspelled "N-O."  Others include signs for: job; bank; back; no good.
LOVE Linguistics
Of
Visual
English
Transcribed using a grammatical notation system developed by William C. Stokoe, Jr. TIP: Mr. Stokoe's name is pronounced STO' kee (emphasis on the first syllable with long O; second syllable deemphasized, sounds like key).
low-
 
context
succinctly addresses the matter at hand, offering limited or no detail or background information No or few circumstances or details surrounding an event, result, or situation.  Providing information directly and to-the-point; includes little or no history, setting, relationships, presuppositions, or supporting or expository data. Native users of American English generally practice low-context communication.
LRE [setting: educational]

Least
Restrictive
Environment

  On the Web:
Listen-Up.org
mainstream deaf, and attended a public school Generally means integrated into a prevailing group or society.  
MCE Manually
Coded
English
English codes, including SEE1, SEE2, and CASE. MCE is English "on the hands."
mediate "act between parties with a view to reconcile differences"
- VisualThesaurus.com
Interpreters are the intermediate point at which source-language and -culture become target-language and -culture.  
message a communication  The entirety of what a communicator is trying to convey; includes the main points of the communication, as well as the details; the information. the content, and reflects the intend. Click to go to page top.
message
  accuracy
correctness and completeness of an interpreted message     
message
 
equivalence
accuracy, plus tone, intent, significant environmental factors, etc. Equivalence assumes accuracy.  Additionally, it conveys tone, demeanor, and intent, of the speaker, as well as meaningful metadata (see dynamic equivalence). Message equivalence renders the message is such a way that it can have the same effect on users of the source language and users of the target language. 
mode method, 
manner, 
way (of behaving or doing something)
  Bimodal communication is the simultaneous use of two "ways" of communicating; producing a sign while saying (or mouthing) it in English, for example.
morpheme smallest 
meaningful 
linguistic
 
unit
A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word or sign (such as man), or a word or sign element (such as -ed in walked), that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. A bound morpheme (such as -ing, -ed, -s, or re-) does not linguistically stand alone; therefore, must be attached (bound) to a free morpheme (such as celebrate, work, or learn).
mute silent; inappropriate, offensive, and typically inaccurate when referring to persons who are deaf Considered pejorative.
If you use the phrase "deaf and dumb," now is a good time to stop.
The use of this word to reference or describe deaf people is antiquated and inappropriate.
NAD National
Association of the
Deaf
  Pronounced:
N-A-D
("Nad" is incorrect.)

On the Web:
NAD.org
NCI NAD-RID

National
Council on
Interpreting

A joint NAD and RID committee, with the involvement of ASLTA and CIT; focuses on issues that relate to the interpreting profession that are of mutual interest and benefit to the Deaf Community.

 

On the Web:
RID.org

NCLB [setting: educational]

No
Child
Left
Behind

  On the Web:
Listen-Up.org 
NIC RID

N
ational
Interpreter
Certification
"Certificate holders must demonstrate professional knowledge and skills that meet or exceed the minimum professional standards necessary to perform in a broad range of interpretation and transliteration assignments."
    -RID, 20080811
Certification levels include:

 NIC;
 NIC Advanced; and 
 NIC Master.

On the Web:
RID.org 

NTS RID
N
ational
Testing
System
Areas of responsibility include:
 - Raters;
 - Certification Dept.
 - Testing Standards
 - Local Test
   Administrators (LTA)
 - Testing Sites
On the Web:
NAD.org
NMM non-manual markers    
neologism Elsewhere on this page, see sign negotiation.    
oralism use and teaching of speech and speech-reading (rather than signed communication)   A staunch advocate of the oralist approach to education was Alexander Graham Bell.
phoneme smallest 
unit 
of speech sound 
causing a 
distinction 
in meaning 
A phoneme is a basic (smallest) distinctive unit of speech sound by which morphemes, words, and sentences are represented (see Linguistics).  In the words "bat" and "rat," the sound that is "b" and the sound that is "r" are each phonemes because their sound distinguishes meaning between these two words, which are otherwise spelled the same (each ends with "at").
pidgin two different languages blended (elements of both are present) "A pidgin is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common."
    -Wikipedia, 20080715
PSE (Pidgin Signed English) is an example of a pidgin language.  PSE is neither ASL nor English, but is a blended version of both.  Also called "contact language."  Cajun French (Louisiana Bayou region) is an example of pidgin.
processing
 
time
time required before producing an interpretation This is the time between when the interpreter receives the source utterance until the interpreter produces the message in the target language. Same as "lag time."
prosody study of metrical structure of verse; a system of verse Includes syntax, lexical choices, and other linguistic elements particular to a language or language system. Often used interchangeably with "fluency," which more accurately characterizes ease of use or effortlessness.  Prosody is really about the structure of a language.
protologism Elsewhere on this page, see sign negotiation.    

 

PSC RID
Professional
Standards
Committee
Offers best practices to the RID Board of Directors for the enforcement of the CPC; works closely with the EPS,  
PSE Pidgin
Signed
English
 

 

Elsewhere on this page, see pidgin.
qualified
  interpreter

 

interpreter's 
qualifications 
meet 
ADA standard
"an interpreter who is able to interpret effectively, accurately and impartially both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary."
  
  -ADA.gov, 20080716
Under the ADA, RID-certification is not a prerequisite to qualification. 
register a style of language
used in
a particular setting or
a particular situation
In interpreting, the five registers are:

 Frozen;
 Formal;
 Consultative;
 Casual; and
 Intimate.
An affirmative response in Formal register might be, "Yes, sir."  In Casual register, "Yeah.

"The Pledge of Allegiance" is an example of Frozen Text; it does not change from one reciting to the next.
reiteration
<coming soon>
    Elsewhere on this site, see ExpansionCompression.
rhetorical
  question
question posed with no expectation of response from other party

 who? what? 
 where? why? 
 when? how?

A prosodic element of both English and ASL; however, used differently in each language.  Generally, a question not requiring an answer from the other person, because it will be supplied by the speaker. English example:

"And where do you think I found it? In my drawer, of course ... right where it belongs!"
RID Registry of
Interpreters for the
Deaf
  On the Web:
RID.org
Rochester
  Method
method of deaf education; nearly all words are fingerspelled in English word order while mouthing or speaking English.   Originally developed at school for the deaf in Rochester, New York; now seldom used.
SEE1 See
Essential
English
This is a coding system, not a language.  SEE1 is coded English, therefore is not ASL.  Sign initializations are heavily used, as are English grammatical markers (-ing, -ed, -ment, etc.)  Conceptually accurate signing is not emphasized. "Butterfly" is signed literally, "BUTTER" and "FLY," rather than using the conceptually accurate ASL sign meaning butterfly.  

This coded English system includes created signs for the verb TO BE (is, am, are). 

SEE2 Sign
Exact
English
This is a coding system, not a language.  SEE2 is coded English, therefore is not ASL.  Sign initializations are heavily used. SEE2 uses conceptually accurate ASL signs for English compound words and in this way distinguishes itself from SEE1.
Pronounced "see two," or "S-E-E two."
SHHH Self
Help for 
Hard of 
Hearing People, Inc.
SHHH has changed its name.  It is now:Hearing Loss Association of American, IncHLAA is a non-profit organization offering support "for consumers by consumers." On the Web:
HearingLoss.org
sign
 
language
manual language (signed communication)    Click to go to page top.
sign
  negotiation
interpreter and consumer agree to temporarily use a "sign" coined ad hoc, for context-specific use An interpreter and deaf consumer may agree to use made-up "signs" or gestures for various ad hoc purposes.  Such inventions are not expected to convey into wider use. Such interpreter-coined "signs" are not ASL signs and are not English.  However, they may be ASL protologisms and are thusly subject to the rigorous tests of use and acceptance by the Deaf community.
signing
 
space
signs are produced within roughly a two-foot square space in front of the signer  Most often, the space in front of the signer within which s/he signs: above the head to just below the waist and slightly wider than his/her shoulder. This space enables most signers to capture (see) a signed communication while maintaining eye contact, and varies with the venue.  For example: when signing at a distance (say, to an auditorium of people), signing space is increased.
sight
 
interpreting
"on sight" interpretation of written source text  - in real-time as seen for the first time by the interpreter May have elements of consecutive interpreting (as interpreter gaze alternates between written source and message recipient) or simultaneous interpreting (use of teleprompter or projected source). Conference interpreters simultaneously interpreting in real-time (for a living, breathing, presenter) might also have a provided written text. This arrangement has an element of sight interpreting but is not because presenters frequently deviate from prepared text. In such a scenario, the authoritative message source is the presenter, not the written text. Live presenters are dynamic; previously prepared written text is not.
Silent -

  - Coffee
  - Social
  - Supper
cross-cultural fellowship, usually "voices off" event Generally open to the public.  Hearing & d/Deaf regularly gather at a local restaurant or mall to socialize using sign language.  All skill-levels welcome, including ASL students. If you're learning ASL and you haven't gotten yourself to one or more of these amazing venues, what are you waiting for?
SimCom use of sign and voice at the same time (simultaneously)   Not recommended.  When attempting to convey the complete meaning of a message by coding it with a different language, part of the message becomes incomplete or inaccurate.
simultaneous
 
interpreting
interpretation occurs during discourse or message broadcast Interpreter is processing and producing interpretation while simultaneously receiving new input for processing.  We didn't said interpreting would be easy. (smile) Challenging, intense, and exhausting if continuous (arguably longer than 15-to-25-minutes depending upon the individual interpreter).
SPP RID
Standard
Practice
Paper
  Various individual SPPs have been published by RID.  SPPs offer practice standards related to the performance and use of sign language interpretation practitioners.
SRP Gallaudet
Shared
Reading
Project
Administered by Gallaudet University, SRP teaches parents/caregivers how to read to DHH children using ASL. On the Web:
Gallaudet.edu
syntax grammatically correct arrangement of words/signs in a sentence The study or system of rules or patterns followed when forming grammatically correct phrases or sentences (see Linguistics). In English, a typical order is subject-verb-object (I am reading a book.); in ASL, a typical order is object-subject-verb (BOOK ME READ).
tactile
 
interpreting
interpreting, via touch, from or into a spoken or signed language Typically, an interpreter and deaf-blind consumer communicate by touch, hand-to-hand or hand-to-arm and/or -wrist.  
team
  interpreting
interpreters working together during an interpreting assignment    
terp short form of interpret, interpreter, interpreting Apparently, this shortened version is not enjoyed by all.  We understand from a long-time Rochester resident that "terp" is seldom used in that vicinity. Yes, we know that the U of MD Terrapins are also called terps.  In fact, they hold the U.S. trademark for the word "terps" (bet you didn't know that). 
text discourse; message; utterance; what is signed, spoken, or written For sign language interpreters, a text is either the source message in its original form, or the interpretation.  An instructor might say, "You signed [fill in the blank]. Now, present the source text, and then we will explore how it compares with the text you produced."
TOD Teacher
of the
Deaf
Deaf education teacher; DHH teacher; instructor of students who have a hearing deficit. We struggle with the terms Deaf Ed, DHH Teacher; (and so on) because people can feel confused about whether deaf is functioning as a noun or an adjective (Is the teacher deaf? Is the education deaf?). English can be tricky.
total communication

TC
use of speech, sign, and any other available means, to communicate Can include use of pictures, drawing, writing, demonstrating (showing), speech-reading; getting up on a table, dancing, whatever it takes.  
translate translates (works between) written texts only Translators read and write.  Translators often work in solitude, maybe from home, reading text in one language, and then translating it into (writing it in) a different language. We imagine translating as very quiet work; different from interpreting. The difference between interpretation and translation is the medium: the interpreter works between either written text and oral or manual discourse, or oral and manual discourse; a translator works between written texts only.
transliterate to render characters, words, or signs of one language using those of a different language   As an example: writing a Hebrew word using English letters.
utilization
  of 3-D
  space

<coming soon>
    Elsewhere on this site, see ExpansionCompression.
utterance something expressed; a statement    
visual
  phonics
manual coded representation of language phonemes VP uses 45 handshapes, and was originally intended to improve spoken language success. Visual phonics and cued speech are different phonemic coding systems.
voicing speaking audibly    
WASLI World
Association of
Sign
Language
Interpreters
  On the Web:
WASLI.org
work
  between
interpret from one language/code/mode into a second language/code/mode Used in place of "interpreting to and from." Refers to the two or more languages that are at the time being interpreted. For example: "Interpreters usually work between two languages; but, in the case of tri-lingual persons, may simultaneously work between English, Spanish, and ASL."
WFD World
Federation of the
Deaf
An international non-governmental organization representing approximately 70 million Deaf people worldwide. On the Web:
WFDeaf.org

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